kashifolia clinging to an experimentally introduced lepidopteran larva (Tama, Tokyo; 1 October 2015).To investigate the annual life cycle and the colony composition, T.
Bioproduction Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8566, Japan Received 12 March 2016; Revised 2 August 2016; Accepted 16 August 2016Academic Editor: G.Wilson Fernandes Copyright © 2016 Utako Kurosu et al.Having introduced lepidopteran larvae onto the colonies, we succeeded in inducing defensive behavior by these nymphs. kashifolia, the defensive behavior of the first-instar nymphs and when they are produced in the life cycle.Because there was a large variation in the size of their forelegs, we address the issue whether soldier-caste differentiation occurs in this species. The apterous adults are aleyrodiform (Figures 1(c) and 2(a)), sessile, and flattened and are found throughout the year on the leaves .For the same purpose, some alates (22 alates collected in Tama on 30 September 2015, nine in Tama on 15 October 2014, and 12 in Ome on 6 November 2013) were confined, together with a piece of paper, in a 5 m L cotton-plugged glass vial to force their larviposition there.
A few days later, after confirming first-instar nymphs walking in the vial, 80% ethanol was poured into it.
In this paper, colonies that are covered with long wax filaments (Figure 1(b)) are called “woolly colonies,” while those that are not are “ordinary colonies” (colonies in Figure 1(a) but the central woolly colony).
Figure 1: (a) Colonies of Thoracaphis kashifolia on leaves of Quercus glauca (Tama, Tokyo; 14 October 2015); (b) a woolly colony of T.
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Aphid nymphs with enlarged fore- and mid-legs were found from woolly colonies of Thoracaphis kashifolia (Hormaphidinae, Nipponaphidini) on leaves of the evergreen Quercus glauca in Japan.
These aphid species basically have a host-alternating life cycle; most of them induce galls on their primary host and form exposed colonies on their secondary host.