Chemical workings of carbon dating

Both chains are coiled round the same axis, and have the same pitch of 34 ångströms (3.4 nanometres).

chemical workings of carbon dating-90

Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus and some of their DNA in organelles, such as mitochondria or chloroplasts.

In contrast prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) store their DNA only in the cytoplasm.

The sugars are joined together by phosphate groups that form phosphodiester bonds between the third and fifth carbon atoms of adjacent sugar rings.

These asymmetric bonds mean a strand of DNA has a direction.

The nucleotide contains both a segment of the backbone of the molecule (which holds the chain together) and a nucleobase (which interacts with the other DNA strand in the helix).

A nucleobase linked to a sugar is called a nucleoside and a base linked to a sugar and one or more phosphate groups is called a nucleotide.DNA) is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases — cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A) or thymine (T) — a sugar called deoxyribose and a phosphate group.The nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next, resulting in an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone.DNA was first isolated by Friedrich Miescher in 1869.