The National Television Violence study evaluated almost 10000 hours of broadcast programming from 1995 through 1997 and revealed that 61% of the programming portrayed interpersonal violence, much of it in an entertaining or glamorized manner.The highest proportion of violence was found in children's shows.
Pediatricians should assess their patients' level of media exposure and intervene on media-related health risks.Pediatricians and other child health care providers can advocate for a safer media environment for children by encouraging media literacy, more thoughtful and proactive use of media by children and their parents, more responsible portrayal of violence by media producers, and more useful and effective media ratings. Although shootings in schools around the world periodically prompt politicians and the general public to focus their attention on the influence of media violence, the medical community has been concerned with this issue since the 1950s.They are age based, which assumes that all parents agree with the raters about what is appropriate content for children of specific ages.Furthermore, different rating systems for each medium (television, movies, music, and video games) make the ratings confusing, because they have little similarity or relationship to one another.The movie ratings are used by approximately three quarters of parents, but only about half of parents say they have ever used the video-game ratings, the television ratings, or the music advisories to guide their choices.
The various media ratings are determined by industry-sponsored ratings boards or the artists and producers themselves.Of all animated feature films produced in the United States between 19, 100% portrayed violence, and the amount of violence with intent to injure has increased through the years.And, as teenagers increasingly use the Internet, they are exposed to violence there as well; a survey of more than 1500 10- to 15-year-olds revealed that 38% had been exposed to violent scenes on the Internet. A recent analysis of the Entertainment Software Ratings Board (ESRB) ratings of video games revealed that more than half of all games are rated as containing violence, including more than 90% of games rated as appropriate for children 10 years or older (E10 and T ratings).The weight of scientific evidence has been convincing to pediatricians, with more than 98% of pediatricians in 1 study expressing the personal belief that media violence affects children's aggression.American children between 8 and 18 years of age spend an average of 6 hours and 21 minutes each day using entertainment media (television, commercial or self-recorded video, movies, video games, print, radio, recorded music, computers, and the Internet).Ten years later, the National Institute of Mental Health issued a comprehensive review of the research on media violence and its effects, which outlined concerns about children's psychological health.